By P. Bernier, G. Bidan, S. Lefrant
This edited paintings comprises 8 vast, review-type contributions by means of best scientists within the box of artificial metals. The authors have been invited through the organisers of the foreign convention on technology and know-how of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to study the growth of analysis some time past 20 years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the cutting-edge of the sphere and assesses the clients for destiny examine.
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Benzene and higher aromatic homologues could be subjected to oxidative coupling with aluminum trichloride and copper dichloride , a reaction that involves formation of the radical cation, its coupling with a neutral compound and rearomatization of the intermediate dihydrounits by a sequence of electron and proton transfers (scheme 7 (1)). The reaction is not regioselective and provides ortho-, meta- and para-coupled phenylene units. Experimental conditions seem to play a delicate role, since oxidation in liquid sulfur dioxide at low temperature and the presence of acids favors para-coupling.
This low conductivity is due to the high degree of saturation of the pyrrole monomer units caused by defects. In the last I Chart 17 Possible structural defects of oxidatively polymerized poly(pyrrole). g, H202, FeCl3, DDQ, CuCI-AICI3/02 21 Scheme 26 Oxidativepolymerization of pyrrole. few years investigations have been focused mainly on the improvement of the conductivity and the processability of PPy. From this intensive research it has been found that the polymer conductivity is a function of monomer:oxidant ratio, solvent, concentration, and reaction time and temperature [ 160].
Thus, the presence of residual water during elimination can give rise to substitution reactions and yield oxygen-containing materials, such as 64, which are detrimental for use in LEDs (chart 13) . Further, formation of HC1 can lead to unwanted reactions with the surface of the metal electrodes in LEDs . Nevertheless, the Wessling-Zimmermann method has proven of extreme value not only for the design of the emitter components in organic LEDs, but also of photoconducting materials [ 111 ] or of polymer layers with high electrical conductivity after doping .