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By S. Preradovic

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The gain of the antenna should be relatively high to obtain high read range. Fractal antennas gained their importance because of having interesting features like: miniaturization, wideband, multiple resonance, low cost and reliability. The interaction of electromagnetic waves with fractal geometries has been studied. Most fractal objects have self-similar shapes, which mean that some of their parts have the same shape as the whole object but at a different scale. The construction of many ideal fractal shapes is usually carried out by applying an infinite number of times (iteration) an iterative algorithms such as Iterated Function System (IFS).

Fractal antennas provide a compact, low-cost solution for a multitude of RFID applications. Because fractal antennas are small and versatile, they are ideal for creating more compact RFID equipment — both tags and readers. The compact size ultimately leads to lower cost equipment, without compromising power or read range. In this section, some fractal antennas will be described with their simulated and measured results. They are classified into two categories: 1) Fractal Dipole Antennas; which include Koch fractal curve, Sierpinski Gasket and a proposed fractal curve.

5°) with the standard Koch fractal dipole (K3-60°) both have resonant frequency of 900 MHz at reference port 50Ω. Fig. 6. 5°). 5° Dim. 14 35 Table 3. 5°) parameters with (K3-60°) at reference port 50Ω. 5°) has better characteristics than the standard Koch fractal dipole (K3-60°) and has longer read range. Another fractal dipole will be investigated here which is the proposed fractal dipole (Salama and Quboa, 2008a). This fractal shape is shown in Fig. 7 which consists of five segments compared with standard Koch curve (60° indentation angle) which consists of four segments, but both have the same effective length.

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