By Dirk Stroobandt
The roots of this e-book, and of the hot study box that it defines, lie within the scaling of VLSI know-how. With gigahertz procedure clocks and ever accelerating layout and approach strategies, interconnects became the restricting issue for either functionality and density. This expanding effect of interconnects at the process implementation house necessitates new instruments and analytic options to aid the process fashion designer. With recognize to modeling and research, the reaction to interconnect dom inance is evolutionary. Atomistic- and grain-level types of interconnect constitution, and function versions at multi-gigahertz working frequencies, jointly advisor the choice of greater fabrics and approach applied sciences (e. g. , damascene copper wires, low-permittivity dielectrics). formerly in major results (e. g. , mutual inductance) are extra into functionality mod els, as older approximations (e. g. , lumped-capacitance gate load types) are discarded. despite the fact that, on the system-level and chip making plans point, the mandatory reaction to interconnect dominance is innovative. Convergent layout flows don't require purely disbursed RLC line versions, repeater expertise, unifi cations with extraction and research, and so forth. really, matters corresponding to wiring layer project, and early prediction of the source and function envelope for the procedure interconnect (in specific, in keeping with statistical types of the procedure interconnect structure), additionally turn into severe. certainly, system-level interconnect prediction has emerged because the enabler of enhanced interconnect modeling, less expensive procedure architectures, and extra effective layout technology.
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Additional resources for A Priori Wire Length Estimates for Digital Design
Some conclusions can also be drawn on the expected gain by using opto-electronic systems [VC+99]. In order to conclude that the system to be checked upon can benefit from using optical interconnections, the gain of building the system in another architecture (maybe three-dimensional) with direct (optical) interconnects should be greater than the cost of including the optical elements. A priori estimations save the designer from trying a bunch of new ideas at random and offer a more systematic overview of the possibilities and restrictions.
2). The edges (E of the graph show which blocks are connected to which nets and are timeless connections that only represent the topology of the network. An elementary block B, with associated vertex KB E lCb, is connected to a net N, with associated vertex KN E lC n , if and only if there exists an edge T E T that connects KB to KN. 2. 2 Characterization of the Model The model of the circuit is characterized by the total number of logic blocks G, the total number of pins P and the total number of nets N .
For modelling 'realistic' circuits through the graph model, we need to have a notion of the way in which nets and logic blocks are connected. The most important property of circuits that we want to use, is the interconnection topology. Based on topology, we can distinguish different classes of realistic circuits. On the other hand, this information may not be too restrictive since we would like a model that is valid for a large number of realistic circuits. A description in too much detail does not satisfy our wish to be able to estimate various parameters in a short time frame.